From the typical case smarter cities open data applications
Smarter cities open data refers to Government, corporate, non-profit organizations such as various types of data initiative open to the public, for users to query, download applications to achieve Smart City data information in cyberspace for open, shared and reused. This paper first explains the connotation of open data, Smart City, typical cases of open data on smart city development situation and trends are studied and explored, with a view to provide a reference for smart city-building in the country.
Smarter cities open data content
Open data originated from government data open, put in government databases, datasets to the public free of charge, without authorization, undifferentiated public, to promote government transparency and improve administrative efficiency. With the development of the open data movement, today, open data is not limited to the open public data, including the private sector, enterprises published data, including personal data after user authorization and desensitization.
Open data has changed the original isolation of information organization and traditional information-gathering and application process, promoting the value of data mining and innovation. Smart City using Internet, cloud computing, big data and the mobile Internet as a representative of modern information technologies and tools, through comprehensive perception of urban data, fully integrated, comprehensive mining, analysis, comprehensive sharing and overall cooperation, improving urban management and service level. Smart City construction and development in different fields of data based on full integration and exploitation of resources, open data sharing and utilization will greatly affect Smart City advance pace. Open data combined with smart city-building, not only can effectively supervise the Government running, improving the intelligence level of urban development, can also stimulate economic growth and promote social innovation and employment, and to better meet the needs of the public, and enhance the level of service to the public.
Open data is the core of data public, shared and reused. Availability of all open data, machine readable, reusable, such features in a timely manner.
Availability: all open data is available (privacy, data security and special restrictions), and, where possible, expand the scope of users and types of uses.
Machine-readable nature: has the right structure and format of the data, allows the machine to identify and automatically processed.
Reusability: open data allowed to be circulated again or more after, handling and use.
Timeliness: the speed and frequency of releases and updates data as fast as possible, guarantee the value of the data.
According to the different ways of opening, smarter cities open data can be divided into two types: types and features. Classification according to different data sources and structure, according to the various functions of the Department, and organizational units to categorize and summarize the data. In the early stages, the use of smarter cities open data this way, through a one-stop portal providing open data by source of data. Topic based on special purpose built data such as personal credit information system database data or individual blood types match the data. Publish only the data types and open data way, by different users to explore their values, open data topics can be tailored to specific user needs to provide a more professional solution.
Through open data, city-wide data integration, data mining, constitute a complete ecosystem of information for individuals, enterprises and social organizations, on the development and utilization of the data, for data value and innovation, and promote the flourishing of information consumption.
Smarter cities open data development and impact
Global-scale open data movement first began in the United States. 2009 United States 44th since President Barack Obama took office, the United States launched a wave ' data democratization ' wave. In 2009, United States President Barack Obama signed the memorandum of understanding on open and transparent Government, and called for more openness and transparency, participation, cooperation Government, open Government and entrusted the drafting of the order. United States has created the world's first open data portal to Data.gov provides ' one-stop ' service. Up to April 2016, total 195 on Data.gov, 391 data collection, covering agriculture, business, climate, consumption, education, energy, health and other fields.
Following the United States zhihou, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Singapore and other countries and regions have been building open data portal, promoted on a global scale was a huge open data movement. In 2010, the United Kingdom Government issued its open data portal, Data.gov.uk, as of April 2016, total 29,556 data sets on this portal, covering the environment, maps, towns, health, government spending, education and other fields.
On September 20, 2011, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, the Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States 8 States signed the Declaration of open data, open government partners established (Open Government Partnership, OGP) organizations. Its vision is to make Government more transparent, more responsible and more responsive to public demands in order to achieve the objective of improving the quality of government regulation, and the public service. Up to April 2016, 69 countries have joined the open government partners worldwide.
Not only in Europe and the United States actively promote open data, also the concern of Latin America and other countries. Through open data to improve public participation in the public administration, to improve the public management and service level. Uruguay's health care system is a mixed public and private ownership structure, people have the right to change your medical service providers each year. In February 2015, Uruguay civil society organizations ' data Uruguay ' joint Uruguay Ministry of Health established the portal site ATuSerivcio ('AtYourService'), medical services based on open government data to provide a one-stop search and visualization service, for the public to compare different health service providers, so as to make better decisions. The project garnered a warm reception on its Web site to set up the first months received about 35,000 visits. The success of the project open to reveal the value of the data, so by the concern from all walks of life. This not only affects the Uruguay of other domestic sectors and areas for the importance of open data, has also moved as Mexico and other neighboring countries to open data developments and applications.
Learn advanced experience from Europe and open data, domestic, are well aware of open data is to carry out effectively without the active participation of the public and, therefore, through actively developing relevant innovation around to spread public awareness of the importance of open data, including competition, raise the level of public participation and by incubating ways, such as fostering small and medium enterprises, and encourage innovation. Shanghai, for example, through open innovation contest, forming an open platform for public participation. After the game, a good hatch and floor work for the project will be experts in the field of counselling, substantive explore open data in improving social governance and promoting the role of economic development and energy. In addition, the Government is also exploring and enterprise cooperation, to provide more convenient services to the public. In November 2015, Baidu, and the Jiangsu provincial Department of transportation signed the framework agreement on strategic cooperation, with convenient public transport for the purpose, the two sides will integrate shared data resources, cloud platforms, products and technologies such as data analysis, depth cooperation in the field of transport information services.
Smarter cities open data trends analysis
According to the smarter cities open data and analysis of the present situation of typical cases, Smart City trend of open data include the following.
(1) to improve the transparency of the Government as a starting point, to multiple influential radiation
Open data movement began in the open government movement. Through the open government data, particularly administrative data, can protect the public's right to give the public a better understanding of its work and operation of the Government, such as national elections, the Government's fiscal expenditure, land transactions and management, and so on. Open data can improve governance, strengthen the Government responsibility to prevent corruption and promote ' open government ' and construction of service-type Government.
Smarter cities open data's ultimate goal is to provide better services to the public to improve people's quality of life, promoting the development of city intelligence. Whether it's earthquakes, outbreaks of sudden major disasters, such as emergency rescue, or everyday life, such as health care, education, transportation and other public services in the field of providing open data can help the public to understand more fully the information, make better decisions and promote efficiency of public, providing convenient and efficient public services.
(2) only open data provided by Governments, multilateral cooperation, development of crowdsourcing and other forms
Now is still the main open data open government data, so the open data movement is still Government-led majority. However, with the development of the open data movement, its business model has been the coordination within the Government departments to open up their data to Government cooperation with enterprises, based on open data and diverse forms of development such as providing service to the public. Such as Baidu cooperation with Jiangsu provincial Transport Department is a good example. In addition, the crowdsourcing also became one of the development trend of open data in the form. Like high German company to crowdsource ideas collected from more than 300 million high-German maps the user's data, nearly every day to use high German maps online navigation user contributed a large number of users to high real-time traffic service data. Gaud also had hundreds of thousands of taxis and millions of logistics vehicles floating car data, obtained national congestion ranking.
(3) to simply provide open data, to provide users of demand-oriented visualization and analysis services transition
In the early stages of open data, data providers often disagree on how to fully exploit and use its data value does not have a clear concept and therefore to publish open data resources and to encourage the mass innovation, was excavated from the open data values, such as open innovation contest this. With the increasing maturity of the open data movement, starting from only providing raw data integration to provide open data services. User-oriented, according to the user's specific needs, in open data resources based on the provided data analysis, data visualization and other professional services. New York City commercial Atlas project (maps.NYC.gov/businessatlas) to help small and medium enterprises business site. The project not only data from census, tax and other government data, including private enterprise to provide real-time passenger traffic data. SMEs can search through the map on the Web site of that population, age distribution, information such as average dwelling size, also include the tax, land-use and other business information.
(4) more information Islands, form a unified standards system
Wisdom city construction process in the formed information island, hinder open data development of a main reasons is no established unified standard, missing corresponding of technology standard and specification, as missing open data framework standard, the system used different of database, data structures not unified, lack reasonable of makes parties are can accept of system schema design, using of data coding and information standard not unified,, makes parties only limited Yu their field within of data and business processing.
Standard development of construction of open data is a fundamental and basic work to achieve open data open, prerequisite for sharing and reuse. Through developed for everyone common followed of related technology standard and specification, can formed a open of, based on standard of, can continued of open data ecological system, achieved data resources shared, to easy of way to public provides high value of, can machine read of data, makes public can convenient reliable to found, gets, understanding and using open data, to helps wisdom city of construction and development, for people of life provides better of service.
At present, the International Organization for standardization has begun to focus on smarter cities open data fields, and related standard-setting work. ITU Telecommunication Standardization organizations (ITU-t) intelligence focus group on sustainable cities have been released in 2015 ' wisdom of anonymity of urban infrastructure for the sustainable development and open data technology report '. In 2015, Telecommunication Standardization sector of ITU Internet and application research group (ITU-TSG20) meeting for the first time, led by China Telecom's ' framework for smarter cities open data projects ' successful project, intended for smart city concept of open data, requirements, functional architecture definition for subsequent technical standards lay the Foundation for smarter cities open data. In addition, the domestic standard-setting has been initiated. China Communications Standards Association (China Communications Standards Association, CCSA), has developed the ' smart city study on demand for open sharing of information resources and technologies ' standard, this standard has been adopted in 2015 for approval. Standardization work will be open to Smart City data framework, interface, metadata, data, and security technologies such as unified standards, standardizing construction of open data, Smart City provides technical support for open data.
Smarter cities open data through the integration of independent data sources, and open, tap the value of the data, to improve the public's right to promote transparent government construction, promote innovation, improve public management and service levels, provide the impetus for construction of smart city. Can be seen from the above research and analysis, only through the exploration of various operations and cooperation mode, play a simple data provider further to provide specialized services to encourage public participation in the use of open data and innovation, and establish unified standards system, to form a healthy, good, Smart City ecological system of open data, create better smart city.